On the Yorkshire Buses - Netflix
Meet the men and women of East Yorkshire Motor Services as they try to keep Yorkshire moving.
Runtime: 60 minutes
On the Yorkshire Buses - Heat - Netflix
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of a purely thermal interaction. When two systems with different temperatures are put in contact, heat flows spontaneously from the hotter to the colder system. The amount of heat transferred in any process can be defined as the total amount of transferred energy excluding any macroscopic work that was done and any transfer of part of the object itself. Transfer of energy as heat can occur through direct contact, through a barrier that is impermeable to matter (as in conduction), by radiation between separated bodies, by way of an intermediate fluid (as in convective circulation), or by a combination of these. By contrast to work, heat involves the stochastic (random) motion of particles (such as atoms or molecules) that is equally distributed among all degrees of freedom, while work is confined to one or more specific degrees of freedom such as those of the center of mass. Like thermodynamic work, heat is a property of a process, not a property of a system. Energy exchanged as heat (a process function) changes the internal energy (a state function) of each system by equal and opposite amounts. This is to be distinguished from the common conception of heat as a property of high-temperature systems. Although heat flows spontaneously from a hotter body to a cooler one, it is possible to construct a heat pump or refrigeration system that does work to increase the difference in temperature between two systems. In contrast, a heat engine reduces an existing temperature difference to do work on another system. As a form of energy, the SI unit of heat is the joule (J). The conventional symbol used to represent the amount of heat exchanged in a thermodynamic process is Q. Heat is measured by its effect on the states of interacting bodies, for example, by the amount of ice melted or a change in temperature. The quantification of heat via the temperature change of a body is called calorimetry.
On the Yorkshire Buses - Engineering - Netflix
The discipline of heat transfer, typically considered an aspect of mechanical engineering and chemical engineering, deals with specific applied methods by which thermal energy in a system is generated, or converted, or transferred to another system. Although the definition of heat implicitly means the transfer of energy, the term heat transfer encompasses this traditional usage in many engineering disciplines and laymen language. Heat transfer is generally described as including the mechanisms of heat conduction, heat convection, thermal radiation, but may include mass transfer and heat in processes of phase changes. Convection may be described as the combined effects of conduction and fluid flow. From the thermodynamic point of view, heat flows into a fluid by diffusion to increase its energy, the fluid then transfers (advects) this increased internal energy (not heat) from one location to another, and this is then followed by a second thermal interaction which transfers heat to a second body or system, again by diffusion. This entire process is often regarded as an additional mechanism of heat transfer, although technically, “heat transfer” and thus heating and cooling occurs only on either end of such a conductive flow, but not as a result of flow. Thus, conduction can be said to “transfer” heat only as a net result of the process, but may not do so at every time within the complicated convective process.
On the Yorkshire Buses - References - Netflix